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Typical Catalyst Structure

The catalysts used in our process are quaternary ammonium or phosphonim salts or 'quats'. They have four ligands attached to a central atom of either nitrogen or phosphorus. The fourth ligand gives rise to a positively charged cation that is balanced by a negatively charged anion, such as bromide or chloride. This cationic-anionic characteristic coupled with its organic nature provides a unique set of features that enable the quat to complex with a water soluble anion. The figure shows methyltributylammonium chloride. Another very popular quat is methyltrioctylammonium chloride.

 

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